Suspects, Lies, and Videotape: An Analysis of Authentic High-Stake Liars - Mann, S., Vrij, A. and Bull, R. (2002)
Are you a liar? You would probably answer "no". Let's ask it another way. How many times did you say something that was not completely true last week? For many reasons, the answer is probably quite a lot! We're all liars some of the time, but for some people lying may be extremely important. How do people act when lying is the only think they can do to keep themselves out of jail? Do they blink a lot? Sweat? Let's find out...
The research paper can be read here. A two part summary of the key details of the experiment can be found here and here. Then...
Test your knowledge using this quizlet. Use the flashcards setting and for each term, write down as much detail as you can from memory before checking the answer.
Then use the other settings, such as the 'test' and 'space race' functions.
The video to the right shows exactly the sort of ideas that many people have about liars, without any real evidence. What Mann et al found is that actually many of the ideas that that FBI 'expert' gives are not supported by research evidence. It may seem like 'common sense', but that doesn't always mean it's right!
DVs, DVs everywhere...
Mann et al. had EIGHT different behavioural categories that they were analysing. Can you name them all?
Assignment 1 - You are the examiner
A past exam question focused on the ecological validity of the Mann et al. study. Read the answer in the document below, and mark it using the mark scheme which can be found on page 7 of the mark scheme here. For each question, write a mark and a brief justification for why you've give that mark. Submit your marks through the form on the home page.
Alternative Study - Mann et al as a true lab experiment
Mann et al conducted a quasi experiment. An alternative study method might have been to conduct a true lab experiment.
1. Describe a laboratory experiment as an experimental method. (5)
2. How could they have conducted an experiment with a similar aim, but as a true lab experiment?
Write a description of the study, including the who, what, where and how.(10)
2. What would the advantages and disadvantages of such an experiment be, compared to the original?
Evaluate this new study in practical and methodological terms. (10)
Assignment 2 - Check the issues...
Here are all the issues that you need to know this year. Which ones are relevant to Mann et al? Remember that 'relevant' can mean positive points as well as negative ones (e.g. saying that the study is high in ecological validity is still a relevant point).
• The application of psychology to everyday life (its usefulness)
• Ecological validity
• Ethnocentric bias
• Reliability and validity
• Individual and situational explanations
• Nature and nurture
• Quantitative and qualitative data
• Snapshot and longitudinal data
• The use of children in psychological research
• The use of animals in psychological research
Pick four points, and write a PEE paragraph for each, saying how the issue relates to Mann et al and giving examples from the study.
P - "One issue with the study by Mann et al is __________"
E - "An example of this in the study is __________________"
E - "This is an advantage/disadvantage because _________________"
Submit the assignment through the form on the homepage.
Here are two clips from the UK TV show 'Would I Lie To You?' One of them is telling the truth and one is lying. Can you tell the difference? Is there anything in their behaviour which matches the findings of Mann et al?
Assignment 3 - Big Issue - Ecological Validity
As we saw with the Zimbardo study, ecological validity is the extent to which the task, method, materials and setting of an experiment are similar to the real-world environment that is being investigated.
1. How ecologically valid is the Mann et al. study? Justify your answer with at least three PEE points.
Submit your points through the form on the homepage.
2. Ecological validity is often ignored by advertisers. For example, brain training games are marketed as ways of improving intelligence, but are the games ecologically valid as a test of problem solving and intelligence in the real world?
The evidence suggests that often they are not. Getting good at brain training games usually makes you good at.... brain training games! The results don't generalise into general intelligence or life success unless the games meet certain very strict conditions. Read here for more info on just such a study.
More flashcards here.
Write down your answers before you reveal the other side of the card. It's a much more effective way of recalling the answers than saying them to yourselves.
Revision Assignment - Create a Mann et al revision podcast or video
Podcasts are a great way to revise, and by making them yourself you are interacting with the material twice, so it will be twice as effective! Podcasts are easy to make using itunes, or there are other options here. If you prefer, you can upload a video to YouTube.
Email me the link of your podcast/video. The best ones will be embedded in the website.
Mann et al claim that their results provide some support for the cognitive load theory. This is an interesting theory with very many applications to real life. Watch this video introduction to the topic and try to think of other areas where cognitive load might be applicable in your life.